Agroforestry and sustainable development

Much of Nicaragua's surface area is considered as humid tropics, extending from the upper area of Matagalpa, Jinotega, to the Caribbean coast and extending southward to reach the San Juan River Basin. RAAN and RAAS regions located in the east of Nicaragua have a tropical humid climate. Rainfall increases from west to east region from 2000 mm to 4000 mm. Excess water is the main constraint to agriculture. The relief progressively passes from mountains to the plains from west to east. It is a region where there was a good forest cover in the past. These areas are inhabited by indigenous peoples, Afro-Caribbean and ethnic communities. The colonization of land by the mestizos from the Pacific is recent, beginning from the 60s of last century. The population density in the region is very low, ranging between 4 to 9 inhabitants per km2. and extending southward to reach the San Juan River Basin.
Although agricultural and forestry production in Nicaragua is severely limited by the availability of natural resources such as arable land, water and biological and cultural diversity, these resources have been underutilized or misused. The advance of agricultural frontier, cattle ranching, mining and forest fires consume a vast expanse of forest each year. During the period 1990-2005, Nicaragua lost 1.349, 000 ha of forests, equivalent to 20.6% of their forested areas. This meant an annual deforestation rate of 1.26% and a loss of habitat for wild life of 16.9%.
The reduction of forest areas in tropical ecosystems means loss of various services that forests provide. With the passage of time and a continued reduction of these services is that ecosystems and agro-ecosystems become more vulnerable and have problems maintaining production. Furthermore it becomes obvious the problem of access to both water consumption and for agricultural use and water quality gradually deteriorates.